key of F.
Fa: In solmization, the fourth
degree of the
major scale. Also known as f
or opening, a flourish, usually played by
A deceptive cadence.
Falsetto: A high,
light, artificial voice used to sing notes that are above the normal register.
Fantasy, Fantasia, Fantaisie:
A piece in free style and form.
Fasola: A system of
solmization used in
17th- and 18th-century England and America. Fa,
La were given to both
F-G-A, with mi used for the seventh
F Clef: A clef
that indicates which line represents F on a
staff, as opposed to a
clef, or an G clef.
ending on a weak beat.
Fermata: Hold; pause
Festivo, festoso: (Ita) Festive; merry
A mathematical sequence in which the next number in the series is the sum of the
previous two numbers. Used by many 20th century
composers to determine various
elements of composition, especially Bela
generic name covering any European
instrument since the
Ages. Colloquial name for
Flute that has a narrower bore which produces a shrill and louder
sound. It is held transversely and has been associated with British military
Fifth: The fifth
degree of the
scale. Also, the
interval formed by
a given tone and the fifth
tone above or below it, e.g.
C down to F.
intervals of the fifth may be
(corresponding to major),
Finger Cymbals: used since antiquity, these small circular cymbals are used in pairs, attached
to the thumb and an opposing finder to create sounds for
The bass part of a piece written by giving a single
note, with numbers
beside it to indicate the inversion
chord to be
A highly ornamented
Finale: The last
movement of a
or the last section of an
Fine: The end.
string instruments, the top surface of the neck, where the fingers press down on
First ending: One or more
which occur at the end of the
Fixed Do: The system of
which C is always
Flute family member, blown from the end and held vertically and similar to a
Recorder. It has four finger holes and two thumbholes in the French version. The
English version has six finger holes and only one thumbhole.
accidental which lowers the
pitch of a
half step. See also
Flat Trumpet: An early English
Flute but not to be confused with a
An interesting percussion
instrument patented in the 1920's. Made of flexible
metal sheets with wooden knobs mounted on spring steel strips. The player shakes
it producing a tremolo sound.
Originally a half round German Hunting Horn. A
in B flat. It has a large wide bell.
Flute: Generically defined as any
instrument with an air column and confined hollow
body whose sounds are produced by a stream of air flowing through holes and a
systematic mechanism for covering them.
A type of
to a minor
3rd below the concert Flute. It was used in
the 18th century but has become obsolete.
Form: The design or
structure of a musical
Forte: Symbolized in
sheet music by the letter
"f" this is an instruction to play the
Fortepiano: A term that differentiates late 18th century
Piano from the
(Ita) Very loud.
Forza: (Ita) Force. See
of four diatonic
degrees. Also, the
interval formed by a given
tone and the fourth
above or below it, e.g. C up to
C down to
of the fourth may be perfect,
Possibly descending from ancient animal horn that had a fingered play style. It
is a valved
with spiral tubes and a wide, flaring bell.
French Sixth Chord:
An augmented sixth chord, which contains a
second from the
Fret: On certain
string instruments, a thin, raised bar placed across the
to indicate a specific position of a
note, and aid in tuning that
Frog: Part of the
"Flight." A contrapuntal
piece, in which
two or more parts are built or "layered" on a recurring
subject that is introduced alone, and followed by an
is the subject (or
theme) at a different
Full score: An
in which all the parts for the
instruments appear on their
own staves in standard instrumental family order
Function: The way
chords, and individual
chords, tend to imply movement
note that sounds, producing
overtones in the
Fz: Forzando or forzato. Synonomous with
(sf or sfz).